Background

There are many available technologies for treatment of articular cartilage defects but none of them provide a consistent and durable long term solution.

Microfracture is currently the most widely used therapy for severe injuries, but it does not re-grow hyaline cartilage, and consequently only offers a temporary treatment.
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is probably considered as the technology leader in this field but it suffers from some considerable drawbacks.
ACI involves two surgical procedures separated by a 2-5 week cell culture period, protracted rehabilitation, and has a variable surgical outcome.